Population-based active surveillance for Cyclospora infection--United States, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 1997-2009.
Authors: Hall RL,Jones JL,Hurd S,Smith G,Mahon BE,Herwaldt BL,
Address: LifeSource Biomedical, LLC, Moffett Field, California, USA. email@example.com
Journal: Clin Infect Dis.
Publication: 2012 Jun;54 Suppl 5:S411-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis049.
Cyclosporiasis is an enteric disease caused by the parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. Since the mid-1990 s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been notified of cases through various reporting and Surveillance mechanisms.
We summarized data regarding laboratory-confirmed cases of Cyclospora infection reported during 1997-2009 via the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), which gradually expanded to include 10 sites (Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Tennessee, and selected counties in California, Colorado, and New York) that represent approximately 15% of the US Population. Since 2004, the number of sites has remained constant and data on the international travel history and outbreak status of cases have been collected.
A total of 370 cases were reported, 70.3% (260) of which were in residents of Connecticut (134 [36.2%]) and Georgia (126 [34.1%]), which on average during this 13-year period accounted for 29.0% of the total FoodNet population under surveillance. Positive stool specimens were collected in all months of the year, with a peak in June and July (208 cases [56.2%]). Approximately half (48.6%) of the 185 cases reported during 2004-2009 were associated with international travel, known outbreaks, or both.
The reported cases were concentrated in time (spring and summer) and place (2 of 10 sites). The extent to which the geographic concentration reflects higher rates of testing, more sensitive testing methods, or higher exposure/infection rates is unknown. Clinicians should include Cyclospora infection in the differential diagnosis of prolonged or relapsing diarrheal illness and explicitly request stool examinations for this parasite.
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