[Neurobrucellosis: description of 5 cases in Setif Hospital, Algeria].
Authors: Guenifi W,Rais M,Gasmi A,Ouyahia A,Boukhrissa H,Mechakra S,Houari M,Nouasria B,Lacheheb A,
Journal: Med Trop (Mars).
Publication: 2010 Jun;70(3):309-10.
Brucellosis is a major ubiquitous zoonosis transmitted from livestock to humans. It is a public health problem in developing countries. Between 2003 and 2005, the incidence of brucellosis in Algeria showed a 181% increase from 8.79 to 24.71. Between 2005 and 2007, the incidence remained almost stable. The estimated mean incidence of Neurobrucellosis is 4% with clinical manifestations that are variable and often multi-focal in the same patient. The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe 5 cases of neurobrucellosis managed in our department between 2001 and 2007.
It was a retrospective study 5 patients. There were 2 women and 3 men with a mean age of 20 years.
Neurological involvement occurred immediately in all patients. Clinical manifestations were variable with meningoencephalitis in 2, meningoencephalitis associated with a polyperipheral neuropathy in 1, meningomyeloradiculitis in 1, and acute diffuse encephalitis in 1. Definitive diagnosis was based on isolation of bacteria from a blood specimen in 1 case and detection of antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in 4. All patients were treated using a combination of 3 of the following 4 drugs: doxycycline, rifampicine, cotrimoxazole and aminoside. Treatment was associated with corticosteroid therapy in 3 cases.
Neurobrucellosis can affect any part of the nervous system and can mimic any neurological disease. Early detection and treatment is the only predictor of favorable outcome of neurobrucellosis, but there is no standardized treatment protocol. Neurobrucellosis should be included in differential diagnosis for any patient presenting central or peripheral neurological manifestations especially in endemic zones.
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