Immunogenicity of a whole-cell pertussis vaccine with low lipopolysaccharide content in infants.
Authors: Zorzeto TQ,Higashi HG,da Silva MT,Carniel Ede F,Dias WO,Ramalho VD,Mazzola TN,Lima SC,Morcillo AM,Stephano MA,Antonio MA,Zanolli Mde L,Raw I,Vilela MM,
Address: Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, State University of Campinas Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
Journal: Clin Vaccine Immunol.
Publication: 2009 Apr;16(4):544-50. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00339-08. Epub 2009 Mar 4.
The lack of a clear correlation between the levels of antibody to pertussis antigens and protection against disease lends credence to the possibility that cell-mediated immunity provides primary protection against disease. This phase I comparative trial had the aim of comparing the in vitro cellular immune response and anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers induced by a cellular pertussis vaccine with low lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content (wP(low) vaccine) with those induced by the conventional whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine. A total of 234 infants were vaccinated at 2, 4, and 6 months with the conventional wP vaccine or the wP(low) vaccine. Proliferation of CD3(+) T cells was evaluated by flow cytometry after 6 days of peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with stimulation with heat-killed Bordetella pertussis or phytohemagglutinin (PHA). CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and T-cell receptor gammadelta-positive (gammadelta(+)) cells were identified in the gate of blast lymphocytes. Gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 levels in supernatants and serum anti-PT IgG levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The net percentage of CD3(+) blasts in cultures with B. pertussis in the group vaccinated with wP was higher than that in the group vaccinated with the wP(low) vaccine (medians of 6.2% for the wP vaccine and 3.9% for the wP(low) vaccine; P = 0.029). The frequencies of proliferating CD4(+), CD8(+), and gammadelta(+) cells, cytokine concentrations in supernatants, and the geometric mean titers of anti-PT IgG were similar for the two vaccination groups. There was a significant difference between the T-cell subpopulations for B. pertussis and PHA cultures, with a higher percentage of gammadelta(+) cells in the B. pertussis cultures (P < 0.001). The overall data did suggest that wP vaccination resulted in modestly better specific CD3(+) cell proliferation, and gammadelta(+) cell expansions were similar with the two vaccines.
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