Gastrointestinal delivery of anti-inflammatory nanoparticles.
Address: Department of Biology, Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
The concept of nanomedicine has risen to be the future of medicine. Advantages of using nanoobjects as vectors for drug delivery systems are numerous, such as fewer side effects due to a low drug dose, and high specificity between drug and target. Unlike systemic therapy, targeting a specific target is more efficient and less costly. In inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, the colon represents the targeted organ. A large number of drugs are candidates for loading into nanoparticles (NPs). Small molecules, such as tripeptides and siRNA, or larger molecules, such as proteins (hormones, antibodies (Ab), etc.), can be encapsulated alone or in a complex form inside the NPs. In our studies, once NPs are synthesized and loaded with anti-inflammatory compounds, they are delivered to the colon. An efficient technique has been developed for specific NP targeting to digestive tract regions, including the colon, using a hydrogel based on electrostatic interactions between positive ions and negative polysaccharides. An in situ double cross-linking process, mediated by Ca²⁺ and SO₄²⁻, of chitosan and alginate administered to the mouse Gastrointestinal (GI) tract by double gavage, is used for gel formation. When the drug is given in NPs, NPs are targeted to the colon, and NP degradation by aggressive environmental conditions in the GI tract is significantly reduced. Using a biomaterial (hydrogel) associated with nanotechnology, lower doses of drug can be loaded efficiently and delivered to the colon to reduce colonic inflammation.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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