Diversity of microsporidia (Fungi: Microsporidia) among captive great apes in European zoos and African sanctuaries: evidence for zoonotic transmission?
Authors: Sak B,Kvác M,Petrzelková K,Kvetonová D,Pomajbíková K,Mulama M,Kiyang J,Modrý D,
Address: ' Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, BraniSovskA 31, Cesk6 Budijovice, Czech Republic.
Journal: Folia Parasitol (Praha).
Publication: 2011 Jun;58(2):81-6.
Abstract: Two hundred and seventeen captive great apes (150 chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes; 14 bonobos, Pan paniscus; 53 western gorillas, Gorilla gorilla) and 20 personnel from thirteen European zoos and two African sanctuaries were sampled and examined in order to determine the occurrence ofEnterocytozoon bieneusi and species of Encephalitozoon in faecal specimens and to compare the epidemiological situation between zoos and sanctuaries. Microsporidia were detected at all sampling sites. Sequence analyses of ITS amplicons generated by using microsporidia-specific primers determined the presence ofmicrosporidia in 87 samples including 13 humans; since two cases of simultaneous occurrence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Enterocytozoon bieneusi were identified, 89 full-length ITS sequences were obtained, namely 78 Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I, five E. cuniculi genotype II, two E. hellem 1A and four Enterocytozoon bieneusi. No Encephalitozoon intestinalis-positive samples were identified. This is the first report of Encephalitozoon species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in captive great apes kept under various conditions and the first record of natural infection with E. hellem in great apes. A comparison of zoos and sanctuaries showed a significantly higher prevalence of microsporidia in sanctuaries (P<0.001), raising a question about the factors affecting the occurrence of microsporidia in epidemiologically and sanitarily comparable types of facilities.
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