Toxocara canis and T. cati are widespread in temperate climates, but clinically apparent infection is rare. Dogs and cats are the main hosts, and the eggs are shed in feces, where they can stay alive for months in the environment. After ingestion of eggs by the patient, the infecting larvae begin a somatic migration through the inner organs, releasing immunogenic compounds. It wanders around or becomes encysted, unable to complete its life-cycle. Death and disintegration of the larva occurs months or years after swallowing the egg. Larvae remain most frequently located in the liver and the lungs but can also cause serious ocular damage by migrating into the retina (ocular larva migrans).
Manifestation: The symptoms of the disease they produce are non-specific, but can include:
Diagnose and treatment: As the direct detection of larvae is not feasible in humans, a serological assay is available. Treatment can be difficult. A bout of human toxocanasis can last for years. Symptoms eventually die down, but it takes just one single larva in the eve to cause some degree of permanent visual impairment or even blindness.
Avoid toxocanis by:
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