Rift Valley Fever
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, fever-causing viral disease that affects domestic animals (such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels) and humans. RVF is most commonly associated with mosquito-borne epidemics during years of heavy rainfall
Rift Valley fever is an acute, fever-causing viral disease that affects humans.
The RVF virus, a member of the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes the disease. RVF is generally found in regions of eastern and southern Africa where sheep and cattle are raised. However, RVF virus also exists in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Map click here
Manifestations: People with RVF typically have either no symptoms or a mild illness associated with: fever and liver abnormalities
However, in some patients the illness can progress to Hemorrhagic fever (which can lead to shock or haemorrhage) Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain, which can lead to headaches, coma, or seizures) Ocular disease (diseases affecting the eye) Typically, patients recover within two days to one week after onset of illness Approximately 1% of humans that become infected with RVF die of the disease
Diagnose and treatment: Treatment and is not available.
Prevent Rift Valley Fever by: Avoid bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects Use of mosquito repellents Bednets Avoiding exposure to blood or tissues of animals that may potentially be infected.
Rift valley Fever Resource: Human cases of Sindbis fever in South Africa, 2006-2010. Storm N, Weyer J, Markotter W, Kemp A, Leman PA, Dermaux-Msimang V, Nel LH, Paweska JT. Epidemiol Infect. 2013 Apr 24:1-5. [Epub ahead of print Identification of suitable areas for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision framework. Sánchez-Vizcaíno F, Martínez-López B, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM. Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 28. doi:pii: S0378-1135(13)00186-7. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.03.016. [Epub ahead of print Aerosol Exposure to Rift Valley Fever Virus Causes Earlier and More Severe Neuropathology in the Murine Model, which Has Important Implications for Therapeutic Development. Reed C, Lin K, Wilhelmsen C, Friedrich B, Nalca A, Keeney A, Donnelly G, Shamblin J, Hensley LE, Olinger G, Smith DR. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Apr 4;7(4):e2156. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002156. Print 2013 Apr Bunyamwera virus possesses a distinct nucleocapsid protein to facilitate genome encapsidation. Li B, Wang Q, Pan X, Fernández de Castro I, Sun Y, Guo Y, Tao X, Risco C, Sui SF, Lou Z. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 8. [Epub ahead of print Inter-Epidemic and Between-Season Persistence of Rift Valley Fever: Vertical Transmission or Cryptic Cycling? Manore CA, Beechler BR. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013 Mar 28. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12082. [Epub ahead of print Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Sudan. Osman HA, Eltom KH, Musa NO, Bilal NM, Elbashir MI, Aradaib IE. J Virol Methods. 2013 Mar 28;190(1-2):4-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.03.004. [Epub ahead of print Rift Valley fever virus clearance and protection from neurologic disease are dependent on CD4+ T cell and virus-specific antibody responses. Dodd KA, McElroy AK, Jones ME, Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF. J Virol. 2013 Mar 27. [Epub ahead of print Enriching pathogen transcripts from infected samples: A capture-based approach to enhanced host-pathogen RNA sequencing. Bent ZW, Tran-Gyamfi MB, Langevin SA, Brazel DM, Hamblin RY, Branda SS, Patel KD, Lane TW, Vandernoot VA. Anal Biochem. 2013 Mar 25. doi:pii: S0003-2697(13)00128-0. 10.1016/j.ab.2013.03.008. [Epub ahead of print Tempering the risk: Rift Valley fever and bioterrorism. Dar O, Hogarth S, McIntyre S. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 Mar 26. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12108. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available. The nucleocapsid protein of rift valley Fever virus is a potent human CD8(+) T cell antigen and elicits memory responses. Xu W, Watts DM, Costanzo MC, Tang X, Venegas LA, Jiao F, Sette A, Sidney J, Sewell AK, Wooldridge L, Makino S, Morrill JC, Peters CJ, Kan-Mitchell J. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59210. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059210. Epub 2013 Mar 18 Post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs protects mice against lethal Rift Valley fever virus challenge. Gowen BB, Bailey KW, Scharton D, Vest Z, Westover JB, Skirpstunas R, Ikegami T. Antiviral Res. 2013 Mar 21;98(2):135-143. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.03.009. [Epub ahead of print The 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Kenya: sources of early warning messages and response measures implemented by the Department of Veterinary Services. Gachohi JM, Bett B, Njogu G, Mariner JC, Jost CC. Rev Sci Tech. 2012 Dec;31(3):877-87 Relevance of Rift Valley fever to public health in the European Union. Chevalier V. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Mar 20. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12163. [Epub ahead of print Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine encoding Toscana virus NSs retains the neuroinvasiveness in mice. Indran SV, Lihoradova OA, Phoenix I, Lokugamage N, Kalveram B, Head JA, Tigabu B, Smith JK, Zhang L, Juelich TL, Gong B, Freiberg AN, Ikegami T. J Gen Virol. 2013 Mar 20. [Epub ahead of print Capripoxvirus-vectored vaccines against livestock diseases in Africa. Boshra H, Truong T, Nfon C, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, Babiuk LA, Kara P, Mather A, Wallace D, Babiuk S. Antiviral Res. 2013 Mar 7;98(2):217-227. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.02.016. [Epub ahead of print Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen. Madani TA, Abuelzein el-TM, Al-Bar HM, Azhar EI, Kao M, Alshoeb HO, Bamoosa AR. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Mar 14;13:136. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-136 Virus-like particle-based countermeasures against Rift Valley fever virus. Koukuntla R, Mandell RB, Flick R. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012 Sep;59 Suppl 2:142-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01478.x Vectorborne diseases in West Africa: geographic distribution and geospatial characteristics. Ratmanov P, Mediannikov O, Raoult D. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2013 May;107(5):273-84. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trt020. Epub 2013 Mar 10 Human cases of wesselsbron disease, South Africa 2010-2011. Weyer J, Thomas J, Leman PA, Grobbelaar AA, Kemp A, Paweska JT. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 May;13(5):330-6. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2012.1181. Epub 2013 Mar 8 Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever virus circulation in sheep and goats in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Fafetine J, Neves L, Thompson PN, Paweska JT, Rutten VP, Coetzer JA. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Feb;7(2):e2065. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002065. Epub 2013 Feb 28 First
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