E. coli infection (ETEC)
Some Escherichia coli are enterotoxigenic (ETEC) which means that they produce toxins and cause diarrhoea disease. Enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common cause of travellers?diarrhoea and have also caused several foodborne outbreaks in the western countries.
Transmission is through food or water contaminated with human or animal faeces. Person-to-person transmission may also occur, but is likely to be less common.
The disease gives: Watery or bloody diarrhoea Abdominal cramps Fever.
Diagnose and treatment: E. coli is demonstrated in stools. Treatment is not normally recommended but is available. Rehydration is needed.
Vaccination: Vaccination against gives protection against ETEC cholera
Prevent ETEC by Drink only water that you have boiled or treated with chlorine or iodine. Other safe beverages include tea and coffee made with boiled water and carbonated bottled beverages with no ice. Eat only foods that have been thoroughly cooked and are still hot Eat only fruit that you have peeled yourself. Avoid undercooked or raw fish or shellfish. Make sure all vegetables are cooked Avoid salads. Avoid foods and beverages from street vendors. Vaccine
E. coli infektion ETEC Resource: Prevention of fecal-orally transmitted diseases in travelers through an oral anticholeric vaccine (WC/rBS). Gabutti G, Aquilina M, Cova M, Giuffrida S, Lizioli A, Protano D, Scrivano F, Tomasi A, Cucchi A, Cavallaro A; Collaborative Group for the Study of Fecal-Orally Transmitted Diseases in Travelers. J Prev Med Hyg. 2012 Dec;53(4):199-203 Toll-like receptor signaling activation by Entamoeba histolytica induces beta defensin 2 in human colonic epithelial cells: its possible role as an element of the innate immune response. Ayala-Sumuano JT, Téllez-López VM, Domínguez-Robles Mdel C, Shibayama-Salas M, Meza I. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Feb;7(2):e2083. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002083. Epub 2013 Feb 28 [Cloning, expression and activity of K99 fimbrial operon gene from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli]. Yang Y, Hou H, Yu L, Zhu G. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2012 Dec 4;52(12):1524-30. Chinese. Prevalence and distribution of different diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli virulotypes in major water bodies in Bangladesh. Akter S, Islam M, Afreen KS, Azmuda N, Khan SI, Birkeland NK. Epidemiol Infect. 2013 Feb 28:1-10. [Epub ahead of print Genotypic characterization of Egypt enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates expressing coli surface antigen 6. El-Gendy AM, Mansour A, Shaheen HI, Monteville MR, Armstrong AW, El-Sayed N, Young SY, Klena JD. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013 Feb 15;7(2):90-100. doi: 10.3855/jidc.2454 Immune response in diarrheal patients and asymptomatic carrier with CS6-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. Puiprom O, Chantaroj S, Matsuda S, Sawanpanyalert P, Honda T, Iida T, Taniguchi T. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012 Nov;43(6):1452-60 E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) inactivation by specific polyphenols is aggregation dependent. Verhelst R, Schroyen M, Buys N, Niewold TA. Vet Microbiol. 2013 May 3;163(3-4):319-24. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.12.039. Epub 2013 Jan 23 Molecular characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates recovered from children with diarrhea during a 4-year period (2007 to 2010) in Bolivia. Gonzales L, Sanchez S, Zambrana S, Iñiguez V, Wiklund G, Svennerholm AM, Sjöling A. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Apr;51(4):1219-25. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02971-12. Epub 2013 Feb 6 A new pathogenicity island carrying an allelic variant of the Subtilase cytotoxin is common among Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli of human and ovine origin. Michelacci V, Tozzoli R, Caprioli A, Martínez R, Scheutz F, Grande L, Sánchez S, Morabito S. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Mar;19(3):E149-56. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12122. Epub 2013 Jan 17 [Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli: several aspects... and also the dairy farms]. Fernández D, Padola NL. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2012 Oct-Dec;44(4):312-23. Spanish. Virulence genes profiles and phylogenetic origin of Escherichia coli from acute and chronic intestinal diseases revealed by comparative genomic hybridization microarray. Sobieszczańska B, Kasprzykowska U, Turniak M, Maciejewski H, Franiczek R, Duda-Madej A. Pol J Microbiol. 2012;61(2):105-10 [Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors]. Kutikhin AG, Yuzhalin AE, Brusina EB, Briko NI. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2012 Sep-Oct;(5):104-14. Review. Russian. Characterization of Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from Burkina Faso. Martikainen O, Kagambèga A, Bonkoungou IJ, Barro N, Siitonen A, Haukka K. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012 Nov;9(11):1015-21. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2012.1228 Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation. Byrd W, Boedeker EC. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 15;152(1-2):57-67. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.10.001. Epub 2012 Oct 5 Multiplex real-time PCR (MRT-PCR) for diarrheagenic. Barletta F, Ochoa TJ, Cleary TG. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;943:307-14. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-353-4_21 C57-CD40 ligand deficient mice: a potential model for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (H10407) colonization. Bernal-Reynaga R, Thompson-Bonilla R, Lopez-Saucedo C, Pech-Armenta M, Estrada-Parra S, Estrada-Garcia T. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 15;152(1-2):50-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.025. Epub 2012 Sep 26 Differentiation of F4 receptor profiles in pigs based on their mucin 4 polymorphism, responsiveness to oral F4 immunization and in vitro binding of F4 to villi. Nguyen VU, Goetstouwers T, Coddens A, Van Poucke M, Peelman L, Deforce D, Melkebeek V, Cox E. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 15;152(1-2):93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.015. Epub 2012 Sep 26 Effects of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin and guanylin on the barrier integrity of intestinal epithelial T84 cells. Nakashima R, Kamata Y, Nishikawa Y. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 15;152(1-2):78-81. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.026. Epub 2012 Sep 26 Experimental infection of gnotobiotic piglets with Escherichia coli strains positive for EAST1 and AIDA. Zajacova ZS, Faldyna M, Kulich P, Kummer V, Maskova J, Alexa P. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 15;152(1-2):176-82. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.011. Epub 2012 Sep 26 ETEC vaccination in pigs. Melkebeek V, Goddeeris BM, Cox E. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 15;152(1-2):37-42. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.024. Epub 2012 Sep 26 First
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