Clinical profile of neurobrucellosis--a report on 12 cases from Bikaner (north-west India).
Authors: Kochar DK,Agarwal N,Jain N,Sharma BV,Rastogi A,Meena CB,
Address: SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan.
Journal: J Assoc Physicians India.
Publication: 2000 Apr;48(4):376-80.
To study the spectrum of neurobrucellosis in a prospective study at Bikaner which is supposed to be uncommon in India.
This study was done on admitted patients of brucellosis from June 1996 to June 1999 in whom the diagnosis was done by history of exposure to animals, fever and arthralgia and demonstration of brucella antibody titres in serum 1:160. CSF examination was done in all the patients. All cases were treated by combination of doxycycline 100 mg twice daily, rifampicin 900 mg daily for 6-8 weeks and injection streptomycin 0.75 to 1 gm i.m. per day for initial 14 days. Detailed neurological examination and antibody titres of serum and CSF again measured at the end of treatment.
Twelve out of 92 patients revealed evidence of neurobrucellosis in which four cases were of meningoencephalitis, two cases of myelitis leading to spastic paraparesis, five cases of polyradiculoneuropathy and one case of polyneuroradiculomyeloencephalopathy. The treatment regimen used was associated with a high cure rate and significant reduction in antibody titres in serum and CSF.
Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon but serious manifestation affecting central and peripheral nervous system. The Clinical profile of the disease mimicks closely to commonly seen neurological infective diseases like tubercular meningitis, viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, cerebral malaria and viral encephalopathy. Serum and CSF testing for brucella antibody titre is an important test for the diagnosis. Blood culture is not an ideal test for neurobrucellosis because of low yield and longer time required for the diagnosis. High degree of suspicion is prudent for the diagnosis. High degree of cure rate can be achieved by treatment with present regimen in a disease which is otherwise having high mortality and morbidity.
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