Antimalarial activity and mechanisms of action of two novel 4-aminoquinolines against chloroquine-resistant parasites.
Authors: Aguiar AC,Santos Rde M,Figueiredo FJ,Cortopassi WA,Pimentel AS,França TC,Meneghetti MR,Krettli AU,
Address: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Journal: PLoS One.
Publication: 2012;7(5):e37259. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037259. Epub 2012 May 23.
Free Text: Antimalarial activity and mechanisms of action of two novel 4-aminoquinolines against chloroquine-resistant parasites.
chloroquine (CQ) is a cost effective Antimalarial drug with a relatively good safety profile (or therapeutic index). However, CQ is no longer used alone to treat patients with Plasmodium falciparum due to the emergence and spread of CQ-resistant strains, also reported for P. vivax. Despite CQ resistance, novel drug candidates based on the structure of CQ continue to be considered, as in the present work. One CQ analog was synthesized as monoquinoline (MAQ) and compared with a previously synthesized bisquinoline (BAQ), both tested against P. falciparum in vitro and against P. berghei in mice, then evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit hemozoin formation. Their interactions with residues present in the NADH binding site of P falciparum lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated using docking analysis software. Both compounds were active in the nanomolar range evaluated through the HRPII and hypoxanthine tests. MAQ and BAQ derivatives were not toxic, and both compounds significantly inhibited hemozoin formation, in a dose-dependent manner. MAQ had a higher selectivity index than BAQ and both compounds were weak PfLDH inhibitors, a result previously reported also for CQ. Taken together, the two CQ analogues represent promising molecules which seem to act in a crucial point for the parasite, inhibiting hemozoin formation.
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